de en fr hr it es
Neighborhood
H
1
 
 
B
5
Na
11
Mg
12
Al
13

 

Periodic table

de  German

Beryllium

en  English

Beryllium

fr  French

Béryllium

hr  Croatian

Berilij

it  Italian

Berillio

es  Spanish

Berilio

 

Be
Be
Beryllium

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

BERYLLIUM

ALKALINE EARTH METAL

 

Atomic number:4

Group numbers:2

Period:2

Electronic configuration:[He] 2s2

Formal oxidation number:+2

Electronegativities:1.57

Atomic radius / pm:111.3

Relative atomic mass:9.012182 ± 0.000003

 

Beryllium was discovered by Louis-Nicholas Vauquelin (FR) in 1798. The origin of the name comes from the Greek word beryllos meaning mineral beryl; also called glucinium from the Greek word glykys meaning sweet. It is a steel-grey metal resistant to attack by concentrated nitric acid. It has excellent thermal conductivity and is nonmagnetic. At ordinary temperatures, it resists oxidation in air. Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care. Beryllium is found mostly in minerals like beryl [AlBe3(Si6O18)] and chrysoberyl (Al2BeO4). Pure beryllium is obtained by chemically reducing beryl mineral and by electrolysis of beryllium chloride. Its ability to absorb large amounts of heat makes it useful in spacecrafts, missiles, aircrafts, etc. Emeralds are beryl crystals with chromium traces giving them their green colour.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Density / g dm-3:1847.7 (293 K)

Molar volume / cm3mol-1:4.88 (293 K)

Electrical resistivity / μΩcm:4 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES

Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:200

Melting point / °C:1287

Boiling point / °C:2471

Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1:9.8

Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1:308.8

Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1:320.3

IONIZATION ENERGIES

First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:899.51

Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1757.12

Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:14848.87

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS

in the atmosphere / ppm:-

in the Earth's crust / ppm:1.5

in the oceans / ppm:0.00005

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DATA

hexagonal

Crystal structure:

hexagonal

Unit-cell dimensions / pm:

a=228.55, c=358.32

Space group:

P63/mmc

ISOTOPES

IsotopeRelative atomic massMass percent (%)
9Be9.0121821(4)100

REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Balanced half-reaction Eo / V
Be2+ + 2e- = Be(s)- 1.85
Be2O32- + 3H2O + 4e- = 2Be(s) + 6OH-- 2.62

 

3 Lithium <=
4 Beryllium
=> 5 Boron