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57
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90
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91

 

Periodic table

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Cer

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Cerium

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Cérium

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Cerij

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Cerio

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Cerio

 

Ce
Ce
Cerium

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

CERIUM

TRANSITION ELEMENT:
LANTHANIDE

 

Atomic number:58

Group numbers:3

Period:6

Electronic configuration:[Xe] 4f2 6s2

Formal oxidation number:+3 +4

Electronegativities:1.12

Atomic radius / pm:182.5

Relative atomic mass:140.116 ± 0.001

 

Cerium was discovered by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger (SE) in 1803 and independently by Martin Heinrich Klaproth (DE). Named after the asteroid Ceres discovered two years before the element. It is a malleable, ductile, iron-grey metal that tarnishes in air and reacts easily with water. Cerium dissolves in acids and ignites when heated. Metal ignites and burns readily. Strong reductant. Cerium is most abundant rare earth metal. Found in many minerals like monazite sand [Ce(PO4)]. Its oxides are used in the optics and glass-making industries. Its salts are used in the photography and textile industry. Cerium is also used in high-intensity carbon lamps and as alloying agents in special metals.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Density / g dm-3:8240 (alpha, 298 K)

 6749 (beta, 298 K)

 6773 (gamma, 298 K)

Molar volume / cm3mol-1:17.00 (alpha, 298 K)

 20.76 (beta, 298 K)

 20.69 (gamma, 298 K)

Electrical resistivity / μΩcm:75 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES

Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:11.4

Melting point / °C:798

Boiling point / °C:3443

Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1:8.87

Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1:398

Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1:423.4

IONIZATION ENERGIES

First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:534.41

Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1046.87

Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1948.82

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS

in the atmosphere / ppm:-

in the Earth's crust / ppm:33

in the oceans / ppm:0.0004

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DATA

face-centered cubic

Crystal structure:

face-centered cubic

Unit-cell dimensions / pm:

a=485

Space group:

Fm3m

ISOTOPES

IsotopeRelative atomic massMass percent (%)
136Ce135.90714(5)0.19(1)
137Ce136.90778(5)*
138Ce137.90599(1)0.25(1)
139Ce138.906647(8)*
140Ce139.905434(3)88.48(10)
141Ce140.908271(3)*
142Ce141.909240(4)11.08(10)

REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Balanced half-reaction Eo / V
Ce3+ + 3e- = Ce(s)- 2.48
Ce(OH)22+ + 2H+ + e- = Ce3+ + 2H2O+1.73
Ce(OH)3+ + H+ + e- = Ce3+ + H2O+1.71
Ce(ClO4)62- + e- = Ce3+ + 6ClO4-+1.70 (1 mol dm-3 HClO4)
Ce(NO3)62- + e- = Ce3+ + 6NO3-+1.61 (1 mol dm-3 HNO3)
Ce(SO4)32- + e- = Ce3+ + 3SO42-+1.44 (1 mol dm-3 H2SO4)

 

57 Lanthanum <=
58 Cerium
=> 59 Praseodymium