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CHARACTER ENTITY REFERENCES IN HTML

In order to give authors a more intuitive way of referring to characters in the document character set, HTML offers a set of character entity references. Character entity references use symbolic names so that authors need not remember code positions. For example, the character entity reference å (refers to the lowercase "a" character topped with a ring; "å") is easier to remember than å.

Character entity references are case-sensitive. Thus, Å refers to a different character (uppercase A, ring; Å) than å (lowercase a, ring; å).

 

Mathematical symbols

DescriptionCharacterEntity numberEntity name DescriptionCharacterEntity numberEntity name
no-break space       ampersand & & &
middle dot · · · plus-minus sign ± ± ±
multiplication sign × × × division sign ÷ ÷ ÷
asymptotic to, almost equal to ≈ ≈ partial differential ∂ ∂
sum of ∑ ∑ integral ∫ ∫
infinity ∞ ∞ square root √ √
per mille sign ‰ ‰ double arrow right (implies) ⇒ ⇒
arrow left ← ← arrow right → →
arrow up ↑ ↑ arrow down ↓ ↓
less than < &#60; &lt; greater than > &#62; &gt;
right-pointing » &#187; &raquo; left-pointing « &#171; &laquo;
double quote " &#34; &quot; degree sign ° &#176; &deg;
en dash &#8211; &ndash; equivalence, identical to &#8801; &equiv;
copyright sign © &#169; &copy; registered sign ® &#174; &reg;
euro sign &#128; &euro; pound sign £ &#163; &pound;
inverted exclamation mark ¡ &#161; &iexcl; inverted question mark ¿ &#191; &iquest;

 

International characters

DescriptionCharacterEntity numberEntity name DescriptionCharacterEntity numberEntity name
capital letter A with grave À &#192; &Agrave; small letter a with grave à &#224; &agrave;
capital letter A with acute Á &#193; &Aacute; small letter a with acute á &#225; &aacute;
capital letter A with circumflex  &#194; &Acirc; small letter a with circumflex â &#226; &acirc;
capital letter A with tilde à &#195; &Atilde; small letter a with tilde ã &#227; &atilde;
capital letter A with diaeresis Ä &#196; &Auml; small letter a with diaeresis ä &#228; &auml;
capital letter A with ring above Å &#197; &Aring; small letter a with ring above å &#229; &aring;
capital letter AE dipthong Æ &#198; &AElig; small letter ae dipthong æ &#230; &aelig;
capital letter C with cedilla Ç &#199; &Ccedil; small letter c with cedilla ç &#231; &ccedil;
capital letter E with grave È &#200; &Egrave; small letter e with grave è &#232; &egrave;
capital letter E with acute É &#201; &Eacute; small letter e with acute é &#233; &eacute;
capital letter E with circumflex Ê &#202; &Ecirc; small letter e with circumflex ê &#234; &ecirc;
capital letter E with diaeresis Ë &#203; &Euml; small letter e with diaeresis ë &#235; &euml;
capital letter I with grave Ì &#204; &Igrave; small letter i with grave ì &#236; &igrave;
capital letter I with acute Í &#205; &Iacute; small letter i with acute í &#237; &iacute;
capital letter I with circumflex Î &#206; &Icirc; small letter i with circumflex î &#238; &icirc;
capital letter I with diaeresis Ï &#207; &Iuml; small letter i with diaeresis ï &#239; &iuml;
Capital N, tilde mark Ñ &#209; &Ntilde; Small N, tilde mark ñ &#241; &ntilde;
capital letter O with grave Ò &#210; &Ograve; small letter o with grave ò &#242; &ograve;
capital letter O with acute Ó &#211; &Oacute; small letter o with acute ó &#243; &oacute;
capital letter O with circumflex Ô &#212; &Ocirc; small letter o with circumflex ô &#244; &ocirc;
capital letter O with tilde Õ &#213; &Otilde; small letter o with tilde õ &#245; &otilde;
capital letter O with diaeresis Ö &#214; &Ouml; small letter o with diaeresis ö &#246; &ouml;
capital letter o with stroke Ø &#216; &Oslash; small letter o with stroke ø &#248; &oslash;
capital letter U with grave Ù &#217; &Ugrave; small letter u with grave ù &#249; &ugrave;
capital letter U with acute Ú &#218; &Uacute; small letter u with acute ú &#250; &uacute;
capital letter U with circumflex Û &#219; &Ucirc; small letter u with circumflex û &#251; &ucirc;
capital letter U with diaeresis Ü &#220; &Uuml; small letter u with diaeresis ü &#252; &uuml;
capital letter Y with acute Ý &#221; &Yacute; small letter y with acute ý &#253; &yacute;
capital letter Y with diaeresis Ÿ &#223; &Yuml; small letter y with diaeresis ÿ &#255; &yuml;
micro sign µ &#181; &micro; small letter sharp s ß &#223; &szlig;

 

Greek alphabet

DescriptionCharacterEntity numberEntity name DescriptionCharacterEntity numberEntity name
capital letter Alpha Α &#913; &Alpha; small letter alpha α &#945; &alpha;
capital letter Beta Β &#914; &Beta; small letter beta β &#946; &beta;
capital letter Gamma Γ &#915; &Gamma; small letter gamma γ &#947; &gamma;
capital letter Delta Δ &#916; &Delta; small letter delta δ &#948; &delta;
capital letter Epsilon Ε &#917; &Epsilon; small letter epsilon ε &#949; &epsilon;
capital letter Zeta Ζ &#918; &Zeta; small letter zeta ζ &#950; &zeta;
capital letter Eta Η &#919; &Eta; small letter eta η &#951; &eta;
capital letter Theta Θ &#920; &Theta; small letter theta θ &#952; &theta;
capital letter Iota Ι &#921; &Iota; small letter iota ι &#953; &iota;
capital letter Kappa Κ &#922; &Kappa; small letter kappa κ &#954; &kappa;
capital letter Lambda Λ &#923; &Lambda; small letter lambda λ &#955; &lambda;
capital letter Mu Μ &#924; &Mu; small letter mu μ &#956; &mu;
capital letter Nu Ν &#925; &Nu; small letter nu ν &#957; &nu;
capital letter Xi Ξ &#926; &Xi; small letter xi ξ &#958; &xi;
capital letter Omicron Ο &#927; &Omicron; small letter omicron ο &#959; &omicron;
capital letter Pi Π &#928; &Pi; small letter pi π &#960; &pi;
capital letter Rho Ρ &#929; &Rho; small letter rho ρ &#961; &rho;
capital letter Sigma Σ &#931; &Sigma; small letter sigma σ &#963; &sigma;
capital letter Tau Τ &#932; &Tau; small letter tau τ &#964; &tau;
capital letter Upsilon Υ &#933; &Upsilon; small letter upsilon υ &#965; &upsilon;
capital letter Phi Φ &#934; &Phi; small letter phi φ &#966; &phi;
capital letter Chi Χ &#935; &Chi; small letter chi χ &#967; &chi;
capital letter Psi Ψ &#936; &Psi; small letter psi ψ &#968; &psi;
capital letter Omega Ω &#937; &Omega; small letter omega ω &#969; &omega;

A user agent may not be able to render all characters in a document meaningfully, for instance, because the user agent lacks a suitable font, a character has a value that may not be expressed in the user agent's internal character encoding, etc.

 

Bibliography:

  1. "Character entity references in HTML 4." W3C. 10 June 2011. <http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/sgml/entities.html>
  2. O. Dag. "About ISO and Unicode." 21 Nov. 2004. orWell.ru. 10 June 2011. <http://orwell.ru/test/ISO/>
  3. Alan Wood. "HTML 4.01 Character Entity References" 10 May 1997. 14 Jul. 2011. <http://www.alanwood.net/demos/ent4_frame.html>