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O
8
F
9
Ne
10
S
16
Cl
17
Ar
18

 

Periodic table

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Fluor

en  English

Fluorine

fr  French

Fluor

hr  Croatian

Fluor

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Fluoro

es  Spanish

Flúor

 

F
F
Fluor

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

FLUORINE

HALOGENS ELEMENT

 

Atomic number:9

Group numbers:17

Period:2

Electronic configuration:[He] 2s2 2p5

Formal oxidation number:-1

Electronegativities:3.98

Atomic radius / pm:70.9

Relative atomic mass:18.9984032 ± 0.0000005

 

Fluorine was discovered by Henri Moissan (FR) in 1886. The origin of the name comes from the Latin word fluere meaning to flow. It is a pale yellow to greenish gas, with an irritating pungent odour. Fluorine is a extremely reactive, flammable gas. It reacts violently with many materials. It is toxic by inhalation or ingestion. Fluorine doesn't occur elementary in nature. Fluorine is found in minerals: fluorite (CaF2) and cryolite (Na3AlF6). Electrolysis of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or potassium acid fluoride (KHF2) is the only practical method of commercial production. It is used in refrigerants, other fluorocarbons and in toothpaste as sodium fluoride (NaF).

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Density / g dm-3:1516 (liquid, 85 K)

 1.696 (gas, 273 K)

Molar volume / cm3mol-1:12.53 (liquid, 85 K)

 22403.78 (gas, 273 K)

Electrical resistivity / μΩcm:- (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES

Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:0.0256

Melting point / °C:-219.62

Boiling point / °C:-188.12

Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1:1.02

Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1:3.26

Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1:76.9

IONIZATION ENERGIES

First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1681.06

Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:3374.20

Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:6050.48

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS

in the atmosphere / ppm:-

in the Earth's crust / ppm:625

in the oceans / ppm:1.3

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DATA

simple cubic

Crystal structure:

simple cubic

Unit-cell dimensions / pm:

a=667

Space group:

Pm3n

ISOTOPES

IsotopeRelative atomic massMass percent (%)
19F18.99840321(8)100

REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Balanced half-reaction Eo / V
F2(g) + 2e- = 2F-+2.87
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e- = 2HF+2.81
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e- = 2HF(aq)+3.06
F2O + 4H+ + 4e- = 2HF + H2O+2.12
F2O + 2H+ + 4e- = 2F- + H2O+2.15
F2O + 2H+ + 2e- = F2(g) + H2O+1.44

 

8 Oxygen <=
9 Fluorine
=> 10 Neon