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Pu
Pu
Plutonium

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PLUTONIUM

TRANSITION ELEMENT:
ACTINIDE

 

Atomic number:94

Group numbers:3

Period:7

Electronic configuration:[Rn] 5f6 7s2

Formal oxidation number:+3 +4 +5 +6

Electronegativities:1.3

Atomic radius / pm:151.3

Relative atomic mass:[244]

 

Plutonium was discovered by Glenn Theodore Seaborg, Joseph W. Kennedy, and Arthur C. Wahl (US) in 1940. Named after the planet Pluto. It is a silvery-white, extremely radioactive, highly toxic, artificially produced metal that reacts with oxygen, acids and steam, but it resists alkalis. Plutonium is found rarely in some uranium ores. It can be made by bombarding uranium with neutrons. Plutonium is used in bombs and reactors. Small quantities are used in thermo-electric generators.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Density / g dm-3:19840 (298 K)

 16623 (m.p.)

Molar volume / cm3mol-1:12.30 (298 K)

 14.68 (m.p.)

Electrical resistivity / μΩcm:150 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES

Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:6.74

Melting point / °C:640

Boiling point / °C:3228

Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1:2.8

Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1:343.5

Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1:348

IONIZATION ENERGIES

First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:581.44

Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:-

Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:-

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS

in the atmosphere / ppm:-

in the Earth's crust / ppm:-

in the oceans / ppm:-

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DATA

simple monoclinic

Crystal structure:

simple monoclinic

Unit-cell dimensions / pm:

a=618.3, b=482.2, c=1096.3, β=101.79°

Space group:

P21m

ISOTOPES

IsotopeRelative atomic massMass percent (%)
239Pu239.052157(2)*
244Pu244.064198(5)*

REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Balanced half-reaction Eo / V
Pu4+ + e- = Pu3++0.970
Pu3+ + 3e- = Pu(s)- 2.03
PuO22+ + 4H+ + 2e- = Pu4+ + 2H2O+1.04
PuO22+ + e- = PuO2++0.916
Pu(OH)3(s) + 3e- = Pu(s) + 3OH-- 2.42
Pu(OH)4(s) + e- = Pu(OH)3(s) + OH-- 0.95

 

93 Neptunium <=
94 Plutonium
=> 95 Americium