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Ca
20
Sc
21
Ti
22
Sr
38
Y
39
Zr
40
Ba
56
La
57
Hf
72

 

Periodic table

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Yttrium

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Yttrium

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Yttrium

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Itrij

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Ittrio

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Ytrio

 

Y
Y
Yttrium

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

YTTRIUM

TRANSITION ELEMENT:
SCANDIUM GROUP

 

Atomic number:39

Group numbers:3

Period:5

Electronic configuration:[Kr] 4d1 5s2

Formal oxidation number:+3

Electronegativities:1.22

Atomic radius / pm:177.6

Relative atomic mass:88.90585 ± 0.00002

 

Yttrium was discovered by Johan Gadolin (FI) in 1794. Named after Ytterby, a village in Sweden. It is a silvery, ductile, fairly reactive metal that is easily combustible, reacts with oxygen in water to release hydrogen. Exposed surfaces form oxide film. Yttrium is found in minerals such as monazite, xenotime and yttria. It is combined with europium to make red phosphors for colour TV's. Yttrium oxide and iron oxide combine to form a crystal garnet used in radar.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Density / g dm-3:4469 (293 K)

Molar volume / cm3mol-1:19.89 (293 K)

Electrical resistivity / μΩcm:57 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES

Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:17.2

Melting point / °C:1522

Boiling point / °C:3345

Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1:17.2

Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1:367.4

Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1:420.45

IONIZATION ENERGIES

First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:599.86

Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1180.99

Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1979.89

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS

in the atmosphere / ppm:-

in the Earth's crust / ppm:20

in the oceans / ppm:0.0003

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DATA

hexagonal

Crystal structure:

hexagonal

Unit-cell dimensions / pm:

a=364.74, c=573.06

Space group:

P63/mmc

ISOTOPES

IsotopeRelative atomic massMass percent (%)
89Y88.905848(3)100

REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Balanced half-reaction Eo / V

 

38 Strontium <=
39 Yttrium
=> 40 Zirconium