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Al
13
Si
14
Zn
30
Ga
31
Ge
32
Cd
48
In
49
Sn
50

 

Periodic table

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Gallium

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Gallium

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Gallium

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Gallio

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Galio

 

Ga
Ga
Gallium

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

GALLIUM

BORON GROUP

 

Atomic number:31

Group numbers:13

Period:4

Electronic configuration:[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1

Formal oxidation number:+3

Electronegativities:1.81

Atomic radius / pm:122.1

Relative atomic mass:69.723 ± 0.001

 

Gallium was discovered by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran (FR) in 1875. The origin of the name comes from the Latin word Gallia meaning France. It is a soft, blue-white metal, stable in air and water that reacts violently with chlorine and bromine. Gallium is found throughout the crust in minerals like bauxite, germanite and coal. It is used in semiconductor production, in making LED's (light-emitting diodes) and GaAs laser diodes.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Density / g dm-3:5907 (293 K)

 6113.6 (m.p.)

Molar volume / cm3mol-1:11.80 (293 K)

 11.40 (m.p.)

Electrical resistivity / μΩcm:17.4 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES

Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:40.6

Melting point / °C:29.76

Boiling point / °C:2204

Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1:5.59

Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1:270.3

Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1:276

IONIZATION ENERGIES

First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:578.85

Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1979.33

Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:2963.09

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS

in the atmosphere / ppm:-

in the Earth's crust / ppm:18

in the oceans / ppm:0.0005

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DATA

base-centered orthorhombic

Crystal structure:

base-centered orthorhombic

Unit-cell dimensions / pm:

a=451.86, b=765.70, c=452.58

Space group:

Cmca

ISOTOPES

IsotopeRelative atomic massMass percent (%)
69Ga68.925581(3)60.108(9)
71Ga70.924705(2)39.892(9)

REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Balanced half-reaction Eo / V
Ga3+ + 2e- = Ga+- 0.4
Ga3+ + 3e- = Ga(s)- 0.56
H2GaO3- + 3e- = Ga(s) + 4OH-- 1.22

 

30 Zinc <=
31 Gallium
=> 32 Germanium