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31
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32
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Periodic table

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Silizium

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Silicon

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Silicium

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Silicij

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Silicio

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Silicio

 

Si
Si
Silicium

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

SILICON

CARBON GROUP

 

Atomic number:14

Group numbers:14

Period:3

Electronic configuration:[Ne] 3s2 3p2

Formal oxidation number:-4 +2 +4

Electronegativities:1.9

Atomic radius / pm:117.6

Relative atomic mass:28.0855 ± 0.0003

 

Silicon was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius (SE) in 1824. The origin of the name comes from the Latin word silicis meaning flint. Amorphous form of silicon is brown powder; crystalline form has grey metallic appearance. The solid form is unreactive with oxygen, water and most acids. It dissolves in hot alkali. Silica dust is a moderately toxic acute irritant. Silicon makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2) and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 °C. It is used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Silicon is by far the more widely used semiconductor for electronics.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Density / g dm-3:2329 (293 K)

 2525 (m.p.)

Molar volume / cm3mol-1:12.06 (293 K)

 11.12 (m.p.)

Electrical resistivity / μΩcm:10 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES

Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:148

Melting point / °C:1414

Boiling point / °C:3265

Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1:39.6

Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1:383.3

Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1:451.29

IONIZATION ENERGIES

First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:786.52

Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1577.15

Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:3231.61

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS

in the atmosphere / ppm:-

in the Earth's crust / ppm:267700

in the oceans / ppm:3

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DATA

face-centered cubic

Crystal structure:

face-centered cubic

Unit-cell dimensions / pm:

a=543.07

Space group:

Fd3m

ISOTOPES

IsotopeRelative atomic massMass percent (%)
28Si27.976926533(2)92.23(1)
29Si28.97649472(3)4.67(1)
30Si29.97377022(5)3.10(1)

REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Balanced half-reaction Eo / V
SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e- = Si(s) + 2H2O- 0.86
SiO32- + 6H+ + 4e- = Si(s) + 3H2O- 0.455
HSiO3- + 5H+ + 4e- = Si(s) + 3H2O- 0.632
H2SiO3 + 4H+ + 4e- = Si(s) + 3H2O- 0.780
SiO2(s) + 8H+ + 8e- = SiH4(g) + 2H2O- 0.377
SiO32- + 10H+ + 8e- = SiH4(g) + 3H2O- 0.176
HSiO3- + 9H+ + 8e- = SiH4(g) + 3H2O- 0.265
H2SiO3 + 8H+ + 8e- = SiH4(g) + 3H2O- 0.339
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4e- = SiH4(g)+0.102
SiF62- + 4e- = Si(s) + 6F-- 1.2

 

13 Aluminium <=
14 Silicon
=> 15 Phosphorus