de en fr hr it es
Neighborhood
N
7
O
8
F
9
P
15
S
16
Cl
17
As
33
Se
34
Br
35

 

Periodic table

de  German

Schwefel

en  English

Sulfur

fr  French

Soufre

hr  Croatian

Sumpor

it  Italian

Zolfo

es  Spanish

Azufre

 

S
S
Sulfur

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

SULFUR

CHALCOGENS ELEMENT

 

Atomic number:16

Group numbers:16

Period:3

Electronic configuration:[Ne] 3s2 3p4

Formal oxidation number:-2 +4 +6

Electronegativities:2.58

Atomic radius / pm:103.5

Relative atomic mass:32.065 ± 0.005

 

Sulfur, also spelled as sulphur has been known since ancient times. The origin of the name comes from the Latin word sulfur (or sulpur or sulphur) which derived from the Sanskrit word sulvere. The spelling of sulfur was recommended instead of sulphur (the spellings in common use in the UK) by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1990. It is a pale yellow, odourless, brittle solid, which is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide. Sulfur is found in pure form and in ores like cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Pure form is obtained from underground deposits by the Frasch process. Sulfur is used in matches, gunpowder, medicines, rubber and pesticides, dyes and insecticides, and for making sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Density / g dm-3:2070 (alpha, 293 K)

 1957 (beta, 293 K)

 1891 (liquid, 393 K)

Molar volume / cm3mol-1:15.49 (alpha, 293 K)

 16.38 (beta, 293 K)

 16.96 (liquid, 393 K)

Electrical resistivity / μΩcm:2E+23 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES

Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:0.269

Melting point / °C:115.21

Boiling point / °C:444.60

Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1:1.7175

Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1:9.62

Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1:276.6

IONIZATION ENERGIES

First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:999.60

Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:2251.78

Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:3356.75

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS

in the atmosphere / ppm:1

in the Earth's crust / ppm:260

in the oceans / ppm:900

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DATA

face-centered orthorhombic

Crystal structure:

face-centered orthorhombic

Unit-cell dimensions / pm:

a=1046.46, b=1286.60, c=2448.60

Space group:

Fddd

ISOTOPES

IsotopeRelative atomic massMass percent (%)
32S31.9720707(1)95.02(9)
33S32.9714585(1)0.75(4)
34S33.9678668(1)4.21(8)
36S35.9670809(3)0.02(1)

REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Balanced half-reaction Eo / V
S(s) + 2e- = S2-- 0.476
S(s) + H+ + 2e- = HS-- 0.065
S(s) + 2H+ + 2e- = H2S(g)+0.141
SO42- + 4H+ + 2e- = H2SO3 + H2O+0.172
SO42- + 4H2O + 2e- = SO3- + 2OH-- 0.93
SO42- + 8H+ + 6e- = S(s) + 4H2O+0.357
HSO4- + 7H+ + 6e- = S(s) + 4H2O+0.339
SO42- + 8H+ + 8e- = S2- + 4H2O+0.149
SO42- + 9H+ + 8e- = HS- + 4H2O+0.252
SO42- + 10H+ + 8e- = H2S(g) + 4H2O+0.303
HSO4- + 9H+ + 8e- = H2S(g) + 4H2O+0.289
S2O82- + 2e- = 2SO42-+2.01
S2O82- + 2H+ + 2e- = 2HSO4-+2.123
S4O62- + 2e- = 2S2O32-+0.08
S4O62- + 12H+ + 10e- = 4S(s) + 6H2O+0.416
S2O62- + 2e- = 2SO32-+0.026
SO2(g) + 4H+ + 4e- = S(s) + 2H2O+0.451
H2SO3 + 4H+ + 4e- = S(s) + 3H2O+0.450
2SO32- + 6H+ + 4e- = S2O32- + 3H2O+0.705
2HSO3- + 4H+ + 4e- = S2O32- + 3H2O+0.491
4HSO3- + 8H+ + 6e- = S4O62- + 6H2O+0.581
4H2SO3 + 4H+ + 6e- = S4O62- + 6H2O+0.509
SO32- + 6H+ + 6e- = S2- + 3H2O+0.231
S22- + 2H+ + 2e- = 2HS-+0.298
S22- + 2e- = 2S2-- 0.524
S32- + 3H+ + 4e- = 3HS-+0.097
S42- + 4H+ + 6e- = 4HS-+0.033
S52- + 5H+ + 8e- = 5HS-+0.003

 

15 Phosphorus <=
16 Sulphur
=> 17 Chlorine